King's Breviary

Among the world's greatest treasures of book art is the series of lavishly illuminated religious books ordered by King Matthias Corvinus of Hungary (1458-1490) to enhance his magnificent Renaissance library. What remains of this one-time royal library at Buda, estimated by Csaba Csapodi to have numbered 2,000 to 2,500 books, is now scattered round the world, but thanks to Zsombor Jékely you can browse many surviving volumes in the virtual Bibliotheca Corviniana Online, a directory of links to digitized manuscripts.

The Vatican Library owns one of the most prized items, the Breviary of Matthias Corvinus, Urb.lat.112, and has just digitized it. This volume is attributed to the Florentine master illuminator Attavante dei Attavanti, of whom Csapodi (article digitized by Roger Pearse) writes:
The work of this master and his school is easily recognizable by the delicate pattern of the classical floral design in the border decoration and its moderate use, and by the figural representations inserted into this ornamental frame. Some of these figures seem to be lifeless and conventional, but in many cases they may be portraits of contemporaries gazing at the reader from the leaves of the book.

Indeed. You would not have dared to paint a false smirk or scowl on the face of any eminent courtier in the administration of the martial Matthias. Or of any court lady in the ascendant:

For more on the Corvinian manuscripts, see my blog post two years ago, Hungary's Week, discussing Urb. lat. 110 (Missale Romanum or the Missal of Matthias Corvinus). Browse too to Rossiana 1164 (Missal of the Friars Minor); Barb.lat.168 (Livius: Historiarum decas I); and Ott.lat.501 (Pontificale).

Here is the full list of novelties from the past week or so:
  1. Barb.gr.438
  2. Barb.lat.4021
  3. Chig.P.VII.9.pt.B, part of an album of architectural drawings by Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680), with some designs by Carlo Fontana or Felice Della Greca (St Louis catalog). This section contains designs for the two-tiered altar at St. John Lateran (HT to @gundormr)
  4. Pal.lat.59
  5. Pal.lat.1747
  6. Pal.lat.1827
  7. Pal.lat.1916
  8. Pal.lat.1918
  9. Pal.lat.1920
  10. Pal.lat.1921
  11. Urb.lat.112
  12. Vat.et.208
  13. Vat.lat.518.pt.2
  14. Vat.lat.535.pt.1
  15. Vat.lat.535.pt.2
  16. Vat.lat.535.pt.3
  17. Vat.lat.1146
  18. Vat.lat.1156
  19. Vat.lat.1160
  20. Vat.lat.1243
  21. Vat.lat.1248
  22. Vat.lat.1256
  23. Vat.lat.1289
  24. Vat.lat.1355, Decretum Burchard, 11th century, notable for an arbor juris at 151v: do you think the top face in this totem looks vaguely like the young Karl Marx?
  25. Vat.lat.1363
  26. Vat.lat.1368
  27. Vat.lat.1369
  28. Vat.lat.1372
  29. Vat.lat.1376
  30. Vat.lat.1379
  31. Vat.lat.1393
  32. Vat.lat.1398
  33. Vat.lat.1407
  34. Vat.lat.1409
  35. Vat.lat.1421
  36. Vat.lat.1424
  37. Vat.lat.1425
  38. Vat.lat.1442
  39. Vat.lat.1461
  40. Vat.lat.1472
  41. Vat.lat.1475
  42. Vat.lat.1477
  43. Vat.lat.1488
  44. Vat.lat.1489
  45. Vat.lat.1493
  46. Vat.lat.1494
  47. Vat.lat.1497
  48. Vat.lat.1498
  49. Vat.lat.1500
  50. Vat.lat.1504
  51. Vat.lat.1507
  52. Vat.lat.1520
  53. Vat.lat.1524
  54. Vat.lat.1526
  55. Vat.lat.1533
  56. Vat.lat.1534
  57. Vat.lat.1536
  58. Vat.lat.1537
  59. Vat.lat.1539
  60. Vat.lat.1552
  61. Vat.lat.1556
  62. Vat.lat.1569, a copy of De rerum natura by Lucretius exhibited in Rome Reborn, where the catalog notes: This elegant manuscript of Lucretius's philosophical poem is an example of the interest in ancient accounts of nature taken by the Renaissance curia. The work, written in the first century B.C., contains one of the principal accounts of ancient atomism. This is one of numerous copies made at that time. The coat of arms of (Pope) Sixtus IV appears on it.
  63. Vat.lat.1571
  64. Vat.lat.1659
  65. Vat.lat.1682, Prognostichon Hierosolymitanum by Giovanni Michele Nagonio. The Rome Reborn catalog by Anthony Grafton notes: Nagonio, a papal functionary who wrote celebratory verses like these for many European monarchs, celebrates the triumphal entry of Julius II into Rome after his victory over the Bolognese.

    On the facing page one sees a self-satisfied pontiff, ringed by short celebratory texts. Nagonio's poems, which fill the rest of the book, reach a self-parodic level of flattery.
  66. Vat.lat.1686
This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 111. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.


Power Over Life or Death

In the bad old days, power did not come from the people, but from a warlord or king, who in turn ascribed his might to God. That is the subtext of this fine illumination from the legal commentary of the monk Gratian, digitized in the past week by the Vatican Library and placed online, where this fine illumination shows a microcephalous angel conferring power over life and death on a king while his courtiers flatter. Check the original to see his goons, just out of this screenshot, as they too look on:

Here is my list of 31 notable novelties:
  1. Barb.lat.2226
  2. Pal.lat.1772
  3. Pal.lat.1774
  4. Pal.lat.1818
  5. Pal.lat.1826
  6. Pal.lat.1829
  7. Pal.lat.1833
  8. Pal.lat.1840
  9. Pal.lat.1848
  10. Pal.lat.1856
  11. Pal.lat.1887
  12. Vat.lat.651, commentaries on the New Testament in a square-format codex. These have been bound together from 9th- and 10th-century books of varying scripts and layouts. Authors: Alcuin and Rabanus Maurus. Here's a fine three-column section:
  13. Vat.lat.1170, Manipulus florum, 14th century
  14. Vat.lat.1366, Gratian (above)
  15. Vat.lat.1370
  16. Vat.lat.1371
  17. Vat.lat.1374
  18. Vat.lat.1400, Giovanni d'Andrea, Glossaria
  19. Vat.lat.1403, another law textbook, with lawyers and even bishops showing respect to the judge:
  20. Vat.lat.1415
  21. Vat.lat.1422
  22. Vat.lat.1432
  23. Vat.lat.1433
  24. Vat.lat.1462
  25. Vat.lat.1502, 14th-century Latin grammatical compiliation, starting with Regulae grammaticales incerti auctoris, So here you go: who wants to identify the true author?
  26. Vat.lat.1508, Petrarch
  27. Vat.lat.1510
  28. Vat.lat.1518, grammarian Pomponius Porphyrio
  29. Vat.lat.1519
  30. Vat.lat.1525, Columella, Res Rusticae, with a fine Renaissance frontispiece with putti and this magpie:
  31. Vat.lat.1558 , a 16th-century manuscript of Isidore of Seville's Differentiae
If you have been following this blog, you will know that the Vatican Library began at the start of this year to digitize black and white microfilms first, then follow up with hi-res color digitizations later to replace them. It's a commendable move, but I have not found an easy way to track these transitions from monochrome to high resolution, which in many cases mark the codices real arrival online.

We know that the digitization work is proceeding sequentially, and is currently working through the shelfmark range Vat.lat. 1300-1500. So at the risk of possibly repeating notes on items I have already blogged about, I will list 13 outstanding codices from this range that I know to now be available in the better digital quality:
  1. Vat.lat.1322, Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, Latin, one of oldest books of the pope, dating from the 6th century.  TM 66106 = Lowe, CLA 1 8
  2. Vat.lat.1341, the 9th-century Collectio Hispana Gallica Augustodunensis which contains acts of Spanish and African councils. This is a unique resource, and the fact that ecclesiastical forgers (the Pseudo-Isidore gang) made the codex to build their credibility in no way reduces its enormous value as a historical record. Full list of the councils with the transcript at MGH
  3. Vat.lat.1342 another text of Chalcedon from the 8th century TM 66107 = Lowe, CLA 1 9 =
  4. Vat.lat.1345 text of the 1120 Council of Nablus where laws of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem were prepared
  5. Vat.lat.1346 see for the arbor juris diagram
  6. Vat.lat.1347 with the celebrated law collection Collectio canonum quadripartita 
  7. Vat.lat.1349 an 11th century Collectio Canonum et Conciliorum.  
  8. Vat.lat.1360 see for the arbor juris diagrams
  9. Vat.lat.1383 see for the arbor juris diagrams
  10. Vat.lat.1390 see for the arbor juris diagrams
  11. Vat.lat.1391 law textbook, mainly Bernardo Bottoni, but the remarkable thing in it is a blank separation page, folio III, ripped from a very early Dante with snatches of Purgatorio
  12. Vat.lat.1468 Glossarium, 11th century, see Lowe Beneventan Script, p. 15a.
  13. Vat.lat.1512 8th-century manuscript of Claudius Donatus's 4th-century Interpretationes Vergilianae from Luxeuil, France in an unusual round hand: TM 66108 = Lowe, CLA 1 10

This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 111. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.


Algorithmic Drawing

Great art is not all about channeling emotion. It's also technique and following algorithms. The artist employed for the drawings in a 14th-century Italian manuscript of Virgil's Aeneid - the codex has just been digitized by the Vatican Library - reveals all too clearly his methodical approach in two drawings on the same page:

At top of the margin on folio 36v is a deer and below is a hare, illustrating the account of the hunt of Dido and Aeneas (IV, 117). John Murdoch comments in his Album of Science volume on antiquity and the Middle Ages, 204 (Scribner, 1984):
All of the animals are drawn in standard, unpretentious profile poses. Those standing on their hind legs are quite similar in overall form. [These two] are not merely similar, but almost identical. All one needed to do to transform the deer at top into the hare below was to replace the antlers with ears. One is tempted to think that the artist employed instructions from a model book that explained how to draw any number of animals with minimal change.
The pictures are undoubtedly interesting, though, showing garments and architecture of the 14th century in great detail, for example a contemporary Italian town:

Here are the main novelties on the Vatican Library digital portal from the past week:
  1. Borg.ar.279
  2. Borg.pers.15, a singularity, being a Latin-Persian dictionary, which was compiled by Ignazio de Jesus, ODC, used a bastard script and never got past manuscript stage. Anthony Grafton comments on this Dictionarium latino persicum in the Rome Reborn catalog:
    The Italian missionary priest Ignazio de Jesus (died 1667) dedicated this Latin-Persian dictionary to Cardinal Antonio Barberini (1607-1681), Prefect of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, the new division of the curia in charge of missionary efforts. Unlike the author's Persian grammar, this dictionary was not printed. Father Ignazio lists Latin words alphabetically in the first column, gives the Persian equivalent in a Roman script transliteration (representing sounds not in the Roman alphabet by the addition of diacritic marks derived from the Persian version of the Arabic alphabet), and finally gives the Persian written form.
    Here is abacus to start the letter A:
  3. Urb.lat.1779
  4. Vat.copt.98
  5. Vat.lat.905
  6. Vat.lat.1245
  7. Vat.lat.1246
  8. Vat.lat.1338
  9. Vat.lat.1381
  10. Vat.lat.1383, Bernardo Bottoni's legal commentary with Juvenal interspersed. The arbor juris drawings are incomplete. The scribe never got round to writing in the kinship terms. But curiously the artist did draw the generic ego or Everyman who is the starting point of all the degrees of relationship:
  11. Vat.lat.1392
  12. Vat.lat.1399
  13. Vat.lat.1401
  14. Vat.lat.1404
  15. Vat.lat.1406
  16. Vat.lat.1446
  17. Vat.lat.1470
  18. Vat.lat.1485
  19. Vat.lat.1496
  20. Vat.lat.1523
  21. Vat.lat.1527
  22. Vat.lat.2761, see above regarding fol 36v
This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 110. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.


Ottonian Artistry

Most of the great artists of 10th-century Europe are anonymous. One of them, who goes by the name Master of the Registrum Gregorii, was a leading illuminator in Trier in Germany at some point between 977 and 993 and created the splendid Ottonian evangeliary Reg.lat.15. It was digitized by the Vatican in the past week. The book has huge and very ornate initials:

It has been copiously studied by art historians. The Trier workshop must have been superb, as a second great illuminator, perhaps a student of the Master, seems to have been put to work on folio 1r and 2v, which contain purpureus pages with gold writing based on late antique models. The latter illuminator, believed to have worked in Mainz, also created the famous Prayerbook of Otto III, now in Munich.

Here is a selection of the new codices online:
  1. Borg.et.8
  2. Reg.lat.8, psalms, Versio Gallicana (with touches of the Vetus Latina), annotated with the help of a Greek text. Incipit, beatus vir qui non abiit in consilio impiorum. This is a 12th-century manuscript from Germany or Bohemia and has the Beuron number 438 (my list). No illuminations, but rubrics throughout.
  3. Reg.lat.15, evangeliary from Trier, Germany (above)
  4. Reg.lat.137
  5. Reg.lat.144
  6. Reg.lat.157
  7. Reg.lat.181
  8. Reg.lat.192
  9. Reg.lat.217
  10. Reg.lat.221, ff. 18-33 contains the natural-history book by Hugo de Folieto (13th century), incipit "Si dormitatis inter medios cleros", according to the eTK. Also: "Desiderii tui karissime petitionibus ..." (13c) (use the eTK via the link at the Medieval Academy of America).
  11. Reg.lat.225
  12. Reg.lat.239
  13. Reg.lat.244
  14. Reg.lat.289
  15. Reg.lat.314
  16. Reg.lat.363
  17. Reg.lat.371
  18. Reg.lat.376
  19. Reg.lat.386
  20. Reg.lat.395
  21. Reg.lat.446
  22. Urb.lat.1779 
  23. Vat.copt.98
  24. Vat.lat.707 , Bartholomaeus Anglicus, De proprietatibus rerum HT to @LatinAristotle who notes: ms names fellow Dominican "Albertus [Magnus] Teutonicus":
  25. Vat.lat.1337
  26. Vat.lat.1375
  27. Vat.lat.1386
  28. Vat.lat.1419
  29. Vat.lat.1471
  30. Vat.lat.1487
  31. Vat.lat.1506
  32. Vat.lat.5748

This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 109. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.


Did Classical Rome Invent the Scala Diagram?

Some weeks ago, this blog reported the first appearance online of a major legal-history manuscript in Rome, the Tractatus Vaticanus or Vat.lat.1352. At that time the images of it were only offered in black and white, and at poor resolution. Now this fine old codex is available in color and at excellent resolution as the work of digitization proceeds.

The core material in this book is the so-called Quadripartitus, a monument of Carolingian canon law, which is a guide to penances at confession that is not in itself rare. In all, 11 manuscripts survive (this one is siglum Y, see Wikipedia and Rob Meens for a survey of these manuscripts). Its organization is as follows: Fols 12 - 84r: Paenitentiale. Fols 84v - 97r: more sections "ex panitentiali romano," "ex penitentiali theodori" etc, including several excerpta patrum (see Oberleitner, Augustinus, 1970).

Its particular interest however lies in its occasional excerpta (quotations) from lawyers and church fathers, some unique, about jurisprudence. The page of greatest interest is fol. 62r which shows a very early arbor juris diagram:

Readers of the earlier blog post, may recall that the text beneath the diagram refers to it as both an arbor and as a scala. This diagram is canonical to a key topic in Roman private law: inheritance. It explains which relations are entitled and in which order when someone dies intestate and leaving property.

A case can be made that arbor is the medieval term whereas scala is the older Latin technical term for this monument in the history of visualization. In the classification of these diagrams by Hermann Schadt (see my Missing Manual), this form belongs to the Typ 1 class.

Schadt argued that such diagrams may not just have been devised in late antiquity, but that they could indeed have already existed in the classical Roman period. Since Schadt's important book in German,  Die Darstellungen der Arbores Consanguinitatis und der Arbores Affinitatis: Bildschemata in juristischen Handschriften (Tübingen: Wasmuth, 1982) is not easily accessible to most readers, I will set out his case in summary here.

Schadt’s first argument is one of usage. It is hardly plausible to suppose that the emperor Justinian’s Institutions, a foundational law textbook issued in 533 CE, introduced this diagram type to legal scholarship for the first time, since the Institutions are based on previous textbooks and explain the degrees of relationship to the student without any especial introduction of the topic. Under the supervision of Tribonian, two law professors (Theophilus and Dorotheus) had been assigned to extract statements about the basic institutions ("Institutiones") of Roman law from the existing teaching books.

One infers from this procedure that visualization of the degrees by means of a diagram was not new, but already an established skill among law teachers. Schadt notes that Servius (4th century) quotes Varro (1st century) as having written on the topic of degrees, adding that another work on the topic is attributed to Ulpian (+277), though no diagram is mentioned by these. But the word degree is telling.

Schadt stresses that the Pauli Sententiae (about 400) alludes to a diagram of the arbor juris type.

At this point in the argument, he refers to Vat. lat.1352 and suggests that its medieval repetition of the word scala (ladder) may well be quoting some centuries-old legal tract. 

Schadt’s second argument is one of inertia: the arrangement of such a diagram would have been difficult to design and therefore it is likely to have been conserved unchanged once it entered wide use (and not to have been altered by Tribonian or any compiler).

His third argument is chronological, alluding to the antiquarian content of the oldest form of Typ 1 tables which have textual tags saying they represent the “lex hereditatis”, the law of succession prior to the Roman Republican period. Those diagrams contain only the adgnati, that is to say those relations under the potestas or manus of the head of the Roman household who comprised the sui heredes – both the younger family living at home including the wives (the uxor in manu, the nurus in manu, etc.) and the older relatives living elsewhere, the proximi adgnati, essentially the head of the household’s cousins, since the older generations are dead.

The diagrams thus sets out the legal bounds of family under the fifth-century-BCE Law of the Twelve Tables and gives no acknowledgement to the praetorian legislation of the Republican period, which widened the circle of entitled family to the cognate relatives. (It should be noted however that cognates were only entitled to bonorum possessio, not to full title in intestate property, and that they therefore had only secondary status to those who claimed under the civil-law provisions.)

In addition, this table does not affirm the right of a child to inherit from an intestate mother, which was introduced by the Senatus Consultum Tertullianum under Hadrian (117-138). The ego’s sister is also missing from the diagram, though Gaius 2.85 states that she was considered agnate in his day.

Schadt's fourth argument is linguistic: some of the terminology (patruus maior and maximus) is antiquated and would not have been employed by a late-antique lawyer. Typ 1 should therefore be dated before the mid second century, he suggests, citing Max Kaser, Das Römische Privatrecht II, 141, 336.

His fifth argument is based on the diagram’s later evolution: If a more “advanced” scala (a left-right-mirrored version of Typ 5, the whole cognate family, extended to the 8th degree) was drawn in the Notitia Dignitatum (circa 400 CE), then a simpler version, the agnate-family Typ 1, must date from earlier, perhaps a lot earlier.

Schadt thus argues the diagram was treated as a scala (ladder) in antiquity, and that the Baumvorstellung notion for it did not arise until the 7th or 8th century (Darstellungen, p 59), and that the basic arbor juris diagram goes further than the late-antique period.

The four main manuscripts transmitting this "classical" Typ 1 scala, each with its own defects, are:
Paris, lat. 4410, fol. 3v, also often called the Stemma de Cujas (image on Mandragore):

Paris, lat. 4412, fol 75v-76r

Vatican, Reg. lat. 1023, 66v-67r (only online in black and white so far)

Leiden, BPL 114, fol 8r, (image on Socrates).

A mere glance at the five items above will make plain that none is definitive. The Tractatus has a version where cognate relatives are mentioned too, though this was not valid in early Roman law. The first column of the Stemma of Cujas (Cuiacus) has slipped lower by one row. Reg.lat.1023 is a dog's breakfast of graphic alterations and lat.4412 and BPL 114 are simply ill-assembled. The version in my missing manual is the sum of this design, eliminating the errors.

There are also said to be other manuscripts with similar figures in existence, as cited by Max Conrat, Geschichte, page 145, note 2 (Schadt does not discuss these), but I have not been able to confirm these exist, since none of them is, as far as I can see, yet accessible online. Those citations are of  an Epitome ab Aegidio Edita (Cod. Lugd. 169 = BPL 169 at Leiden, only 4 images digitized) and a breviary of law, Paris, BNF latin 4406, variously given as fols. 57, 58 or 68 (not digitized yet by Gallica that far through the book). Conrat's Lugd. 47, another breviary, listed as Lugd. Bat. 47 in Haenel, is probably VLQ 47 at Leiden, but only 8 images of this are offered on Socrates.


Pretty Portolan

Among at least 25 new manuscripts online in the past week at the Vatican Library is a 16th-century portolan chart attributed to the Mallorcan mapmaker Joan Martines. This may not be the oldest of such charts, but in its bright colors it is a thing of beauty and it was evidently never used for actual seafaring but kept as a work of art.

Below is the Aegean Sea with Rhodes at right and Crete below. The coloration makes you want to fly there this minute:
  1. Reg.lat.83 , Gerson
  2. Reg.lat.169 , 5th Lateran Council
  3. Reg.lat.320
  4. Reg.lat.353
  5. Reg.lat.382
  6. Urb.lat.426 , Livy: Ab urbe condita, a 15th-century manuscript (upload is not working yet)
  7. Urb.lat.1708 , an arithmetic handbook (the fly-leaves are palimpsests)

  8. Urb.lat.1710 , portolan (above)
  9. Vat.gr.586 , 12th century manuscript of John Chrysostom
  10. Vat.gr.920.pt.2 , book of Greek plays, Sophocles, etc., 14th century, from fol 175r onwards
  11. Vat.gr.1007 , Plutarch, a fairly important manuscript source
  12. Vat.gr.1296.pt.1 , manuscript S of the Suda, the famed Byzantine encyclopedia, copied 1205
  13. Vat.gr.1296.pt.2
  14. Vat.gr.1296.pt.3
  15. Vat.gr.1533 , Four Gospels, with fine canon tables:
  16. Vat.lat.1138 , William Durand
  17. Vat.lat.1143 , ditto
  18. Vat.lat.1267 , an 11th-century grab-bag of Chrysostom, Augustine, Isidore and other authors: presumably a scholar's own anthology
  19. Vat.lat.1277 , Chrysostom and Augustine
  20. Vat.lat.1327 , texts from synods, Byzantine period, in Latin translation
  21. Vat.lat.1333 , 15th century compilation of councils
  22. Vat.lat.1387 , 14th-century Bottoni, Glossa (compare below)
  23. Vat.lat.1390, Bernardo Bottoni's Glossa ordinaria in Decretalium Gregorii libros I-V cum glossulis (1266). A very beautiful 14th-century copy with elaborate mise-en-page. The arbor juris below (discussed by Hermann Schadt in his Darstellungen) is just one of the fine illuminations.
  24. Vat.lat.1411 , 14th-century manuscript of Digests of Justinian with some fantastic action filled illuminations like this:
  25. Vat.lat.11559 , Lucan, De bello civili Pharsalia
This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 109. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.


Exposing the Peutinger Diagram

I recently announced a project to study how the late antique Peutinger Diagram was made. This reverse engineering project is comparable to lifting the hood/bonnet of a sleek car in the hope of understanding the mechanical principles by which it was built and operates.

The first step is to create a digital version of the Peutinger Diagram on which we can overlayer the findings as we accumulate them. My starting point is the digital projection of the Diagram created by Professor Richard J. A. Talbert’s team for the 2010 book Rome’s World: The Peutinger Map Reconsidered (Map A).

This projection is a panorama photograph after images of the 12th-century parchment pieces of the sole surviving copy had been stitched together digitally and slightly skewed so that everything matches up.

The result was a banana-shaped image that is not very practicable in full-screen view, so I have straightened the Talbert projection, inserting a single hinge about one third of the way from the left. The left and right tips of the panorama were raised a total of 2.85 degrees with respect to one another.
The pivot point is located at Cesena, Italy and roads and rivers in the vicinity have been adjusted accordingly but the slight shifts are in no way egregious, being well below the diagram's threshold of geographical accuracy.

The second step was to create a scalable vector graphic (SVG) file based on this projection. I began by merging a selection of SVG files which are stored online at the Ancient World Mapping Center in and employed in the Talbert Map Viewer and pivoted these in the same way. I soon found however that they are not very satisfactory from a SVG-design point of view, being full of transforms, unsuitable data objects, data cruft, broken lines and many tracing errors.

I have almost entirely retraced by hand the photographic image with a great many simplifications. This adaptation will provide us a compact, interactive, fast-loading data-file similar to that I have published for the Great Stemma. I have retained the Talbert colour coding system and some of his data objects. Acknowledgement to the Talbert team's work will appear on the new file.

The third step is to match this new data view of the Tabula with the past scholarship, whereby Conrad Miller's 1916 book, Itineraria Romana, is the great monument. Miller, a German citizen-scholar who died in 1933, analysed the diagram into its key routes, effectively recasting its data into list form. What I am now doing is mapping Miller's routes as an over-layer onto the SVG file.

The results will be uploaded as I go to the project page on ResearchGate. Keep visiting the project page to see the progress. Collaborators and followers are very welcome.