Digital Winter

The long winter of the Vatican Library's digitization program continues, with very little genuinely new this month, barring seven Pal. lat. manuscripts and a single Ott. lat. item.

Not having any contacts with the library, I cannot say why this is. We know from published information that there are up to half a dozen teams of digitizers in Rome and that a team takes about six weeks from taking a manuscript off the shelf through scanning, checking and marking up to the point where a manuscript is published in facsimile. So they must be doing something.

One evident aim of this set-up is to satisfy the foundations that fund the work. A look at the Polonsky Foundation site suggests that its commission to digitize manuscripts has been pretty much completed: all the Greek manuscripts requested have green ticks next to them (except Ott.gr.147, which is in fact online), while only eight of the Hebrew manuscripts remain to be issued. (Incidentally, if you are interested in how to show manuscripts from two libraries side by side on one screen, the Polonsky blog this week tells you how to use Mirador software.)

A contract with the Heidelberg University Library and Manfred Lautenschläger Stiftung to complete the Pal.lat. collection (which was confiscated from Germany all those years ago) is also heading for completion, which explains the brisk progress there.

It's not clear who, apart from NTT Data with 1,800 items pledged, will fund the continuation of the work, or what happens next. There may perhaps have been recent progress in digitizing incunabula, archival volumes and the old inventories, which have separate portal pages and which I have not been tracking. 

Here is a listing of the new Heidelberg items:
Here are the 20 newest postings in Rome, of which 19 are not really new, having been accessible via the German site for years:
This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 88. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.


Peter and Parker

Half a year ago, a kind reader revealed to me that the Compendium of Petrus Pictaviensis, a remarkable medieval chart of time that dates from around 1180 just kept going and going and turns up in English translation in one of the early English vernacular bibles, that edited by Matthew Parker and printed in London from 1568 onwards.

There are several copies of this famous work of 16th-century printing on Early English Books Online (which is behind a paywall). Otherwise check out Princeton's copy incomplete at archive.org.

The English text of the diagram has been usefully abstracted by the Text Creation Partnership (here is the transcript). What one notices is that this text is longer than that of Petrus, heavily interpolated and rather liberally translated from the Latin.

I was interested to see how the diagram shaped up graphically, and as I usually do, I looked at the end rather than the beginning of the chart, where there are several characteristic ways of laying out the Holy Family and Apostles, one of Petrus's hobby-horses. Here's how it is shown in the Parker Bible:

Below is my own abstract of the three most characteristic layouts to be found in the older manuscripts:

You'll see at a glance that the Parker Bible use the layout at top right. This is useful to anyone who wants to research the origins of the Parker diagram and the work involved in converting it to print. I haven't continued my research past that simple check, but knowing about this connection may be useful to others studying this diagram, so I will leave this note online.



It's been a great week for scholars of Cicero, with a couple of key Renaissance manuscripts of his work arriving online at the Heidelberg offshoot of the Vatican digitization programme.

The Roman lawyer, politician and philosopher's celebrated book On Oratory was long thought to be substantially lost until the bishop of Lodi, Italy discovered a nearly complete and somewhat corrupt text of it in his predecessors' library in 1421 or 1422.

Scholars converged on Lodi to copy it, but incredibly this so-called Codex Laudensis got lost by 1428. Perhaps it will show up one day as the world's oldest overdue library book. We are therefore forced to rely on the copies, of which two went to Germany and finally ended in Rome: P and R, or Pal.lat.1469 and Pal.lat.1470 below. Here is the full list of 27 new digitizations:
  1. Pal. lat. 1399 Walter Lud; Johannes de Monteregio; Martin Waldseemüller; Alkindus: Mathematisch-astrologischer Sammelband (Süddeutschland, 1. Viertel 16. Jh.)
  2. Pal. lat. 1401 Beda; Thebit ben Corat; Albumasar; Hali Imrani; Roger Herfordensis; Ps.-Hippokrates; Messahalla; Alkindi; Ps.-Ptolemaeus: Zusammengesetzte Handschrift: astronomische und astrologische Texte (Schlesien (I) , Magdeburg (III), 1. Hälfte 15. Jh. (I) ; um 1200 (II) ; 14. Jh. (III))
  3. Pal. lat. 1402 Guido Bonatus: Liber astronomicus (Deutschland, Anfang 15. Jh.)
  4. Pal. lat. 1403 Johannes de Lineriis; Johannes de Sancto Amando: Sammelhandschrift zur Astronomie und Medizin (Frankreich, 1. Hälfte 14. Jh.)
  5. Pal. lat. 1404 Johannes Pastor Coloniensis: Viaticus astrologiae (Westdeutschland, 2. Hälfte 15. Jh.)
  6. Pal. lat. 1405 Alfonsus rex; Johannes Dank; Adamus; Ps.-Boethius; Wolfram de Bertholdi Villa; Petrus Hispanus-Thydericus: Zusammengesetzte Handschrift (Deutschland (I), 14. Jh. (I) ; 2. Hälfte 13. Jh.(II))
  7. Pal. lat. 1407 Albumasar; Zahel; Alkindus; Guido Bonatus: Astrologische Sammelhandschrift (Deutschland, um 1400)
  8. Pal. lat. 1408 Albumasar; Alkabitius; Hali Imrani: Astrologische Sammelhandschrift (Deutschland, 14. Jh.)
  9. Pal. lat. 1409 Johannes Dank: Astronomische Sammelhandschrift (Deutschland, 2. Hälfte 14. Jh.)
  10. Pal. lat. 1411 Johannes: Tabulae cum canonibus ; Algorismus de minutiis ; De compositione et usu cylndri (Wien, 1. Drittel 15. Jh.)
  11. Pal. lat. 1412 Gerardus ; Johannes a; Johannes ; Alfonso: Astronomische Sammelhandschrift (Paris, 1453/54)
  12. Pal. lat. 1413 Johannes ; Johannes Schwab de Butzbach; Petrus Lufft de Monaco; Johannes Plunderlin de Straubing; Nicolaus Rysch: Astronomische Sammelhandschrift (Bayern und Österreich, 2. Dritttel 15. Jh.)
  13. Pal. lat. 1414 Qabīṣī, Abu-'ṣ-Ṣaqr ʿAbd-al-ʿAzīz Ibn-ʿUṯmān /al-; Thebit ben Corat; Johannes ; Robertus Grosseteste; Arzachel; Gerardus ; Robertus ; Māšā'allāh Ibn-Aṯarī: Astrologisch-astronomische Sammelhandschrift (Frankreich (Paris), 13./14. Jh.)
  14. Pal. lat. 1415 Robertus ; Albumasar; Petrus: Sammelhandschrift (14. Jh.)
  15. Pal. lat. 1438 Astronomisch-astrologischer Miszellaneenband mit Inkunabeldruck (Franken, Heidelberg, Ende 14. Jh. - zweites Drittel 15. Jh.)
  16. Pal. lat. 1462 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: De innuentione (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  17. Pal. lat. 1466 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: De Oratore (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  18. Pal. lat. 1467 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Opera (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  19. Pal. lat. 1468 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: De oratore (Italien (Venedig), 15. Jh.)
  20. Pal. lat. 1469 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Opera (Italien, 15. Jh.), the P witness:
  21. Pal. lat. 1470 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: De oratore (Italien, 15. Jh.), the R witness:
  22. Pal. lat. 1473 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Opera (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  23. Pal. lat. 1474 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: De oratore (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  24. Pal. lat. 1477 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Orationes (Italien, Ende 14. Jh.)
  25. Pal. lat. 1478 Cicero, Marcus Tullius; Antonius Luschus; Sicco Polentonus: Orationes (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  26. Pal. lat. 1481 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Orationes (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  27. Pal. lat. 1482 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Orationes (Italien, 15. Jh.)
Of the other most reliable copies of the Codex Laudensis at the Vatican, the one usually referred to as O, Ott.lat.2057, is already online (see PUL in October), but Vat.lat.3237 is still  on the waiting list. A lesser copy above, Pal.lat.1469, made on paper in Venice, has its own interesting history related by Jeannine Fohlen. This entire group is referred to as the integri.

The only other source of Cicero's oratorical works is the so-called mutili family, of which the oldest representatives are Avranches 238 (A; c. 830–50), Erlangen 380 (olim 848; E; c. 985), and London, Harley 2736 (H; written by Lupus of Ferrierès, c. 830–40).

This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 87. The main Vatican website has been at a standstill since late November. I don't know why.  The only recent news about it was an Osservatore Romano article by Cesare Pasini in November implying there are still some free Canon reproductions left to give you if you donate quick to the fund-raiser.

If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.


Wonky Meniscus

A meniscus, as we all now learn at about age 12, is caused by surface tension on a liquid. It may make it hard to measure liquid medication. Presumably the entire Pacific Ocean is a couple of millimetres higher than it would be without surface tension.

But Aristotle had a different explanation, which he employed to argue that the Earth was the centre of the universe, and this was believed in the Middle Ages. It figures in a curious scientific manuscript just digitized at the Vatican and uploaded to the Bibliotheca Palatina website.

Here I will let John E Murdoch take over the story. He says the figure:
... pictures an argument that is found in both geometrical and natural philosophical works in the Middle Ages. It is alluded to, for example, in Roger Bacon in the thirteenth century, in Thomas Bradwardine and Nicole Oresme in the fourteenth, and in the margins of various medieval manuscripts of Euclid's Elements, as well as in the present fourteenth-century codex of a geometrical work ascribed to one Gordanus (not to be identified with Jordanus de Nemore). The argument relates to the meniscus of water or any other liquid contained in a vessel (since any point on such a surface is equally distant from the center of the universe). But this means that the closer the vessel is to this center, the more liquid it can contain when "full." This is so because the circular arc determining the surface of the liquid is "more curved" when the vessel is closer to the center of the universe, that is, the meniscus then “bulges" higher over the rim of the vessel. Indeed, it was even maintained that if such a vessel were absolutely full of liquid, moving the vessel further from the center of the universe would cause some of the liquid to overflow, since the surface of the liquid would become less curved.

The passage is at folio 114v of Pal.lat. 1389, one 24 fascinating scientific manuscripts uploaded in the past week:

  1. Pal. lat. 1369 Richardus ; Johannes ; Battānī, Muḥammad Ibn-Ǧābir /al-; Abū-Maʿšar Ǧaʿfar Ibn-Muḥammad; Messahalla; Iafar; Ptolemaeus, Claudius; Hali Imrani; u.a.: Astronomisch-astrologische Sammelhandschrift (Süddeutschland, Mitte 15. Jh.)
  2. Pal. lat. 1372 Alkabitius; Zael; Abū-Maʿšar Ǧaʿfar Ibn-Muḥammad; Messahalla: Astrologische Sammelhandschrift (Italien (?), 14. und 15. Jh.)
  3. Pal. lat. 1373 Messahalla; Prosdocimus ; Johannes Dank; Johannes de Lineriis; Prophatius Judaeus; Alfonso : Astronomisch-astrologische Sammelhandschrift (Südwestdeutschland, 1. Viertel 15. Jh.)
  4. Pal. lat. 1375 Johannes ; Johannes de Lineriis; Peuerbach, Georg /von; Johannes Regiomontanus; Philo ; Hermes: Astronomische Sammelhandschrift (Krakau, Ende 15. Jh.)
  5. Pal. lat. 1376 Johannes de Lineriis; Johannes Schindel; Thebit ben Chorat; Johannes Dank de Saxonia; Johannes ; Farġānī, Aḥmad Ibn-Muḥammad /al-; Alkabitius; Messahalla; Prophatius Judaeus: Astronomisch-mathematische Sammelhandschrift (Regensburg, St. Emmeran, 1447-1458)
  6. Pal. lat. 1379 Guilelmus de Velde: Empyreale minus (Südwestdeutschland, 1498)
  7. Pal. lat. 1380 Sammelhandschrift zum Quadrivium (Bologna und Paris, 1350--1366)
  8. Pal. lat. 1382 Alkabitius; Abulcasis; Albertus Magnus; Trotula; Thomas Cantimpratensis; Nicolaus de Polonia; Arnaldus de Villanova: Sammelband zur Astrologie und Medizin (Italien (I) , Südwestdeutschland (II) , Deutschland (III) , Italien (IV) , Deutschland (V), 13./14. Jh. (I) ; 14. Jh. (II) ; 1. Hälfte 14. Jh. (III) ; 13. Jh. (IV) ; um 1400 (V) ; 15. Jh. (1458) (VI) ; Ende 14. Jh. (VII))
  9. Pal. lat. 1383 Mathematisch-komputistische Sammelhandschrift (Heidelberg, Letztes Viertel 15. Jh.)
  10. Pal. lat. 1384 Johannes Regiomontanus; Johanens von Gmunden; Messahalla; Prosdocimo de Beldemandis; Gerardus Cremonensis (Sabionetta): Mathematisch-komputistischer Sammelband (Bayern (I) , Deutschland (II), um 1500 (I) ; 15. Jh. (II))
  11. Pal. lat. 1385 Alebertus de Brudzewo; Georg Peuerbach; Albubather: Astronomisch-astrologische Sammelhandschrift (Krakau, 1488)
  12. Pal. lat. 1386 Mischband: Handschrift und Drucke (Südwestdeutschland (Rottweil) (I) , Holland (Breda) (II), 1501 (I) ; um 1550 (II))
  13. Pal. lat. 1387 Prophatius Judaeus; Jacobus Bonet: Astronomische Sammelhandschrift (Norspanien, 1. Viertel 15. Jh.)
  14. Pal. lat. 1388 Andalò di Negro; Gerardus de Feltre; Albumasar; Alkindus; Ps.-Hippokrates: Astronomische Sammelhandschrift (Italien, 1478)
  15. Pal. lat. 1389 Mathematisch-astronomische Sammelhandschrift (Deutschland, 2. Hälfte 14. Jh.)
  16. Pal. lat. 1390 Messahalla; Ptolemaeus; Almansor astrologus; Ps.-Hermes; Thebit ben Corat; Johannes de Lineriis; Johannes Danck: Astronomisch-astrologische Sammelhandschrift (Frankfurt a.M., 1391-1436)
  17. Pal. lat. 1391 Johannes de Monteregio; Richardus de Wallingford; Marx Gyerhose; Johannes Virdung: Mathematisch-astronomische Sammelhandschrift (Heidelberg, um 1500)
  18. Pal. lat. 1392 Sammelband: Miszellaneen zu Astronomie, Astrologie, Mathematik, Medizin und Manik (Deutschland (I, III, V) , Frankreich (II) , Südwestdeutschland (IV), 15. Jh. (I, III, V) ; um 1300 (II) ; 16. Jh. (IV))
  19. Pal. lat. 1394 Sammelband (Noritalien (I) , Italien (II), 1. Hälfte 15. Jh. (I) ; 16. Jh. (II))
  20. Pal. lat. 1395 Commentum in Johannis de Sacrobosco tractatum de sphaera (16. Jh.)
  21. Pal. lat. 1396 Astrologisch-astronomische Miszellaneen (Heidelberg, um 1500)
  22. Pal. lat. 1399 Walter Lud; Johannes de Monteregio; Martin Waldseemüller; Alkindus: Mathematisch-astrologischer Sammelband (Süddeutschland, 1. Viertel 16. Jh.)
  23. Pal. lat. 1401 Beda; Thebit ben Corat; Albumasar; Hali Imrani; Roger Herfordensis; Ps.-Hippokrates; Messahalla; Alkindi; Ps.-Ptolemaeus: Zusammengesetzte Handschrift: astronomische und astrologische Texte (Schlesien (I) , Magdeburg (III), 1. Hälfte 15. Jh. (I) ; um 1200 (II) ; 14. Jh. (III))
  24. Pal. lat. 1402 Guido Bonatus: Liber astronomicus (Deutschland, Anfang 15. Jh.)
This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 86. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.

Murdoch, John E. Album of Science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages. New York: Scribner, 1984. Topic 254 (page 295).


Time Trials

Regular readers of this blog will know that a big topic hereabouts is the origin of timelines generally, and in particular how humans got the idea of construing synchronous series of events graphically by picturing them on parallel horizontal tracks.

Here is how it is done in the fifth century in the Great Stemma, with a track at top representing kings of Judah, at centre kings of Samaria and below it, the ancestors listed by the Gospel of Luke:

It is helpful here to use certain fundamental cognitive distinctions laid out by Rafael Núñez and Kensy Cooperrider not long ago in a review paper.

Humans can use (abstract) space to map the passage of time in three distinct fashions in their gesture and speech: projecting deictic time (from where "I" stand), setting an order of events in sequence time (distinguishing the placement of "landmarks" in time), and comparing one or more temporal spans. Scholarly discussions of time sometimes muddle these. As two authors remark:
Philosophers, physicists, and cognitive scientists have long theorized about time –along with domains such as cause and number – as a monumental and monolithic abstraction. In fact, however, the way humans make sense of time for everyday purposes is, as in the case of biological time tracking, more patchwork.
There is no reason to suppose that this typology in the mind transfers easily to a drawing. In fact, the two authors point out that investigating space-time mappings in non-English-speaking cultures by asking people to demonstrate with cards and paper may be handicapped by the fact that this "material realization " needs to itself be learned first:
... arrangement tasks are not well-suited for use in such populations, because they presuppose familiarity with materials and practices that, in fact, require considerable cultural scaffolding.
A similar point was made 20 years ago by Mary Bouquet, who rebuked anthropologists for asking Portuguese people unfamiliar with stemmata to draw their kinship bonds this way.

So what are the tracks in the Great Stemma doing? They don't tell us anything about the Latin concept of deictic time (though that has been very expertly figured out by Maurizo Bettini, who shows the Romans faced the past with their backs to the future), whereas the three tracks seem to demonstrate a Latin tendency to set out a sequence of time from left to right, in accord with the Latin writing system, and they do indeed suggest that Latin-speakers would have compared durations of temporal spans in a spatial way when speaking of them.

It could well be argued that the invention of this type of timeline was inspired by gesture, though I have considered other origins such as game-play. The spans are not exactly calibrated with one another, but match one another in lengths more precisely than a speaker would ever intend to do in gesture.

An intriguing aspect of the Núñez and Cooperrider paper is its mention of the spiral of time perceived in some cultures. The Great Stemma might have something going on in this respect where it loops up at the end and flips, with the script gradually rotating and terminating in a plaque with several upside-down sentences:

These are all aspects that require further study and analysis.

Bettini, Maurizio. Anthropology and Roman Culture: Kinship, Time, Images of the Soul. Translated by John Van Sickle. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1991.

Bouquet, Mary. ‘Family Trees and Their Affinities: The Visual Imperative of the Genealogical Diagram’. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 2, no. 1 (1996): 43–66. doi:10.2307/3034632.

Núñez, Rafael, and Kensy Cooperrider. ‘The Tangle of Space and Time in Human Cognition’. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17, no. 5 (2013): 220–29. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2013.03.008.


Dreamers of dreams

Whatever downers this year has brought, it has been an upper in the science of the mind, thanks to blockbuster proof of the efficacy of deep neural networks. For about half a century, a debate has been under way about the human mind. Is it like a computer? Or just a messy-round-the-edges semblance of such a rational machine?

The New York Times had the story this week in a long-read article by Gideon Lewis-Kraus. The faction who reject the computational view are generally termed connectionists, since they propose that the nuances in the connections joining what we have learned with what we perceive are sufficient to explain thought.

The only way to scientifically prove this is feasible would be to build a synthetic device that works the same way to achieve human-like results. This year, both Google and Baidu succeeded in doing it.

Lewis-Kraus puts this in the context of a stockmarket investment opportunity in artificial intelligence, which is rather like saying the Enlightenment was a historic opportunity to invest in dictionary publishing. What's really happening here is that we are in the midst of developing a new paradigm for understanding ourselves or "what the brain might be up to" as Geoffrey Hinton puts it in this interview.

My research has been built around the hypothesis that humans partly reason with the help of spatial mechanisms in the brain. A diagram (and good layout generally) helps us to make sense of ideas, because it harnesses spatial thought. Like many revolutionary new views of the mind, this does not fit well with the rationalist view of the mind that has risen since the Enlightenment.

We are still immensely far from understanding the mind, but the practical benefits of this year's connectionist experiment make it far less likely that the mind is like a computer, and far more likely that it is an assembly of reasoning effects that simulate pure reason. A neural network cannot shut out irrational deductions, but it could integrate a very mixed bag of inputs.

This may even make us more open to older, pre-Enlightenment ideas such as the classical concept of memory, the western medieval theory of symbols and the idea that we are not natively rational, but learn to be rational. Cognition may not even be limited to one brain, but be distributed across individuals. We are not logical machines. We are dreamers of dreams.



There have been no major releases by the digitization programme at the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana since November 28, with no explanation for the standstill, but items from its collection have been showing up on the Heidelberg, Germany virtual Palatina library:
  1. Pal. lat. 1075,2 Albertus : De animalibus (Lib. I-XII) Band 2 (Würzburg (?), 1436)
  2. Pal. lat. 1081 Hippocrates; Galenus; Ḥunain Ibn-Isḥāq; Avicenna; Christophorus : Medizinische Sammelhandschrift (Padua, 15. Jh. (1452))
  3. Pal. lat. 1111 Averroes; Avicenna: Medizinische Sammelhandschrift (13./14. Jh.)
  4. Pal. lat. 1115 Avicenna; Hippocrates; Isrāʾīlī, Isḥāq Ibn-Sulaimān /al-; Ibn-Māsawaih, Abū-Zakarīyā Yūḥannā; Alexander; Bernardus; Cermisonus, Antonius; Johannes Calderia; Hugo Senensis: Medizinische Sammelhandschrift (Pavia / Padua, 1430-1431)
  5. Pal. lat. 1116 Avicenna; Arnoldus; bernardus arelatensis; Mundinus; Bernardus; Balenus; Henricus : Medizinische Sammelhandschrift (Niederlande, Mitte 15. Jh.)
  6. Pal. lat. 1117 Avicenna; Gulhelmus; Nikolaus de Montpellier (Nikolaus de Polonia); Lanfrancus: Medizinische Sammelhandschrift (Prag, Mitte 15. Jh. (1446/48))
  7. Pal. lat. 1340 Prophatius Judaeus; Petrus; Thebit ben Corat; Albertus; Ps.-Hippocrates; Guilhelmus Anglicus; Leopoldus de Austria; Alkabitius; u.a.: Astronomische und astrologische Sammelhandschrift (Erfurt, Mitte 15. Jh. (1458/59))
  8. Pal. lat. 1345 Johannes de Wachenheim: Opus tripartitum chordarum (Neuhausen bei Worms, 1413)
  9. Pal. lat. 1350 Scheubel, Johann (Mathematiker): Kommentar zu Euklids Elementa (Band III) (Tübingen, 16. Jh. (1561))
  10. Pal. lat. 1353 Miscellaneen zum Quadrivium (Ostmitteldeutschland, 4. Viertel 14. Jh.)
  11. Pal. lat. 1354 Miscellaneenband. Astronomie, Astrologie, Mathematik und Medizin (Regensburg, 1463-1464)
  12. Pal. lat. 1355 Ibn-al-Haiṯam, al-Ḥasan Ibn-al-Ḥasan; Ps.-Euclides: Opticae sive de aspectibus libri septem; Catoptrica sive de speculis (Nordfrankreich (England), 13. / 14. Jh.)
  13. Pal. lat. 1358 Burchardus; John; Polo, Marco: Geographische Sammelhandschrift (Niederlande, 15. Jh.)
  14. Pal. lat. 1359 Polo, Marco: De consuetudinibus et conditionibus orientalium regionum (Deutschland, Ende 15. Jh.)
  15. Pal. lat. 1361 Johannes; John; Sibote; Poggio Bracciolini, Gian Francesco: Sammelhandschrift (Thüringen, 2. Hälfte 15. Jh.)
  16. Pal. lat. 1364 Lambertus Pithopoeus; Barbaro, Francesco: Sammelband (Heidelberg (I) , Norditalien (Padua) (II), 1587 (I); 2. Hälfte 15. Jh. (II))
  17. Pal. lat. 1366 Ptolemaeus, Claudius: Opere quadripartito (Deutschland, 1. Hälfte 16. Jh.)
  18. Pal. lat. 1367 Sammelhandschrift: Astronomie, Astrologie, Medizin (Südwestdeutschland, Mitte 15. Jh.)
  19. Pal. lat. 1487 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Orationes (Italien (Venedig), 15. Jh.)
  20. Pal. lat. 1490 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Orationes (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  21. Pal. lat. 1492 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Sammelhandschrift (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  22. Pal. lat. 1498 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Epistulae (Italien (Genua?), 15. Jh.)
  23. Pal. lat. 1499 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Epistulae ad familiares (I-XVI) (Italien, 14.-15. Jh.)
  24. Pal. lat. 1501 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Epistulae ad familiares (I-XVI) (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  25. Pal. lat. 1502 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Epistulae ad familiares (I-XVI) (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  26. Pal. lat. 1503 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Epistulae ad familiares (I-XVI) (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  27. Pal. lat. 1511 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Opera (Frankreich, Italien, 14.-15. Jh.)
  28. Pal. lat. 1512 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: De finibus (Italien (Florenz), 15. Jh.)
  29. Pal. lat. 1515 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Opera (Italien, 15. Jh.)
  30. Pal. lat. 1520 Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Sammelhandschrift (Italien, 14. Jh.)
  31. Pal. lat. 1765 Alexander; Donatus, Aelius : Sammelhandschrift (Landsberg, 1456)
This is Piggin's Unofficial List number 85. If you have corrections or additions, please use the comments box below. Follow me on Twitter (@JBPiggin) for news of more additions to DigiVatLib.